17 Dec 2017

2d and 3d drawing for building For 7 Marla and 10 Marla

Friends Here i am going to give you a perfect beautiful 2D and 3D drawings. These drawings are made by expert architect.2d and 3d drawing for building For 7 Marla and 10 Marla
Maximum on these drawings you will spent many dollars but here you will get these drawing free. Just Download and print and start building your house by these drawings.

Structures Design for this Drawings.

Friends as you know that building structure can design according to bearing capacity of soil. But i will recommend that keep 1' x 1.5' Column in every wall. That's will become more safe. But if you design your structural drawing by engineer so that will become more useful for you.
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15 Oct 2017

Unit weight of steel is d square/162. How is it derived?

Today i will prove Dsquare/162 friend most of friend asking about this formula but they don't know how to proves that. Here i will proves that D2/162.25.

Unit weight of steel is d square/162. How is it derived

Unit weight of steel is d square/162. How is it derived?

By this formula you can calculate unit weight of Steel in Pound (lbs). This is a constant formula mostly this formula is using for steel weight calculating.
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Derivation for How much Cubic Feet Cft/ Cubic Meter (Cum) in Cement Bag

Friend to day i will show you how to calculate volume of 1 cement bag in cubic Feet and Cubic Meter. Most of friend don't know how to find it. Here i will teach you in very simple words.
Let's Start

Derivation for How much Cubic Feet Cft/ Cubic Meter (Cum) in 1 Cement Bag
Derivation for How much Cubic Feet Cft/ Cubic Meter (Cum) in Cement Bag

If you want to know about Volume of Cement then i think this will proves very good post for you. Let's start first i am going to find One cement bag volume in Cubic Meter(Cum)
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16 Sep 2017

Law of Water-Cement Ratio With Formulas

In this post I will show the true law of Water-Cement Ratio. Most of friends asking how to find water ratio in concrete. Here I have shared with you a standard formula on which you can easily find water-Cement Ratio. So let’s start to know about Law OF Water Cement Ratio.
Law of Water-Cement Ratio With Formulas

Law of Water-Cement Ratio

The quantity of water required according to the quantity of cement in the preparation of concrete is called the law of water-cement Ratio. Various formula have been used for this purpose but the
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30 Jul 2017

Septic Design Standard Calculation for 1 or more users

Septic Design Standard Calculation

Septic Design Standard Calculation for 1 or more users

Today I am going to teach you that how to design a septic tank for one or more person or septic tank Design Calculation. Most of people construct irregular septic tank for less or more persons. Which is highly cost able?
Here I will make you able to design a perfect and standard septic tank.
Let’s Start!
The quantity of sewage to consider for the design of Septic Tank must not be less than 300 gallons as per standard calculation.
Schematic Diagram of a Septic Tank
I will show you some standard values for one or more bedroom sewage.
Here I will discuss thumb rules for design septic tank for one or more room. Keep it in your mind.

  • For one bedroom

For one bedroom septic tank must be design minimum 300 gallon or 371.00 Liters.

For a two bedroom House:

The quantity of sewage to be considering for the septic tank design must not be less than 700 gallons or 2597 Liters.

Let’s begin with an example of a three bedroom residence.

Septic Tank calculations for a three bedroom Residence

The quantity of sewage to be considered for the design of a Septic Tank should not be less than 900 gallons.

As per the thumb rule;

Quantity of sewage to be considered for the design of a Septic Tank = 900 gallons
1 gallon of liquid = 3.78 liters
Quantity of sewage in liters = 900×3.78 = 3402 liters
Volume of Sewage in Cubic feet
3401/28.52 = 119.20 CFT (cubic feet)
Volume of Sewage in Cubic meters
3401/1000 = 3.401 cubic meters

  • Dimensions of a Septic Tank in meters:

Width of the Septic Tank = 1.690m
Depth of the Septic Tank = 1.10m
Length of the Septic Tank = 2.10m

  • Dimensions of a Septic Tank in feet:

Width of the Septic Tank = 5.71’
Depth of the Septic Tank = 3.34’
Length of the Septic Tank = 6.59’

For one Bedroom house minimum 300 gallons septic tank is very must. For example I want to design a septic tank for 17 persons.
Quantity of sewage to be considered in the design of a Septic Tank = 5100 gallons (For 17 Persons) as per standard calculation of Septic Tank.
1 gallon of liquid = 3.78 liters
Quantity of sewage in liters =5720×3.78 = 21621.6 liters

  • Volume of Sewage in Cubic feet

Total Area =133.44 Square Feet
Depth we have 5.5’
Volume of septic Tank is 5.5 * 133.44 = 733.92 CFT

Last Words!

Thank you for reading this post. If you face any problem in this post then don’t hesitate to ask. Just take at least 300 gallon for one bedroom house. That’s enough for one bedroom house. I have also given you the dimension of septic tank. If you have irregular surface then don’t worry. First find area of the surface and then multiply it with depth of your septic tank. You will get your tank volume. That’s all!

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18 Jul 2017

What is Special Concrete and Type of Special Concrete

What is Special Concrete ?
Special Concrete

Concrete prepared for special purpose is called Special concrete. Such concrete is prepared for special purposes this type includes light weight concrete, heavy weight concrete, high strength concrete, Mass concrete and ready mix concrete. Light weights aggregated are used for preparing light weight concrete. Or more voids of air are created. These concretes are used to lessen the weight of multi storied buildings so that the foundation and other structures are not needed to be constructed heavy. In addition to this such concrete has much resistance for heat and sound. Right strength concrete is prepared for high quality cement and aggregates and with much expertise. This used in the construction of using heavy machinery water tanks, and other important constructions. Many precautions are taken in the use of mass concrete because head and shrinkage problems are faced at these places. Such concrete is suitable for big constructions like Dams, Ports, Runways etc. sometimes the concrete is mixed and kept in dry started in order to expedite the construction work. And the concrete needed can be prepared soon it in the required quantity; such concrete is called Ready Mixed Concrete.’

Types of Special Concrete

Special concrete has many types. The more important of these are

  • Light Weight Concrete
  • Heavy Weight Concrete
  • Nailing Concrete
  • High Strength Concrete
  • Mass Concrete
  • Ready Mixed Concrete

Light Weight Concrete

The concrete who’s with is less than 1930 kg/cu. M (120lb/cu.ft) is called Light Weight concrete. The minimum weight of such concrete can be used up to 300 kg/cu.m (20 lb/cu.ft). Clearly such concrete is used for special purposes. By the use of this concrete the weight of the construction becomes less. Also the cot of such construction becomes low. This is important in the multi-stories buildings. The construction with this concrete is also useful even for soft soil. Such concrete is also useful for insulating against heat and sound. The quality of this concrete is taken much advantage of.
There are various types of light Weight concrete a follows:

  • Light Weight Aggregate Concrete
  • Cellular Concrete
  • NO-Fine Concrete

Light Wight Aggregate Concrete

Light Weight aggregates are used in the concrete. since tin the preparation of such concrete the quantity of light weight aggregates is more there, it is slight weight concrete two type of aggregates is more there it light weight concrete. Two types of aggregates are used in its preparation. The first type includes the natural light weight stones. These light stones include Pumice, Scoria, Tuff and Diatomite. These stones types comprise artificially prepared aggregates. These include burnt cinders, expanded slag and expanded shale and clay.
The strength of this concrete depends on the cement quantity and the strength of aggregated used. There is much difference in the strength of the various types of such concrete. This concrete is strong in strength of compression but is weak in flexural strength this is because there are many voids into his concrete. The compression strength in this concrete is 10 Kg/cm square. (150 lb/in square).

Cellular Concrete

In this type of concrete voids are created is the cement paste by entering air into it. In this way the weight of concrete becomes less enough. The coarse aggregates are not used in this concrete. The structure of this concrete is like foam. Therefore this concrete is also called foamed concrete. At the preparation of the concrete for the sake of creating air in it the Aluminum Powder equal to 0.2% of cement is added in the concrete. The air in this way enters in the concrete. This improves the workability of the concrete. There is no need of compaction for this concrete. This concrete can by pumped for transportation.
This concrete is used to lay the lower layer of a floor. This can be used at the roof as heat insulation Material. Its weigh can be up to 300 Kg/ cubic meter (130 lb/cft). This concrete possesses the ability of shrinkage and absorbing. Therefore, the surface of such concrete should not be left open. But should be covered properly with suitable material.

No-Fine Concrete. 

This such a type of light weight concrete what does not contain fine aggregates; cement and water are used in it. Therefore, the number of voids increases in this concrete. And the weight of the concrete becomes less. In this ways the strength of the concrete decreases. The coarse aggregates of uniform size are used in this concrete. Thus the prepared concrete contains more voids. The size of the coarse aggregates I mostly 10 to 20 mm( 3/8 to ¾ inches). These aggregate of 5% over size and 10% of down size can be included in the concrete.
The compaction does not act on this concrete. Only Roding is applied if needed. Because with the use of vibratory the course aggregated will be separated from the cement paste. In the preparation of such concrete. The coarse aggregates should be curved very much. Proper curing of this concrete should be done after placing it. Improper curing wills bad effect on it. Proper attention of curing will give in hot and dry season.
Natural coarse aggregates are used in the preparation of this concrete and especially prepared light weight aggregates are also use here. The weight of concrete prepared from ordinary aggregates are also used here, to weight of concrete prepared from ordinary aggregates is 1600 to 2000 Kg /Cubic Meter ( 100 to 125lb/ CFT), but the concrete prepared from special light weight aggregate it is 640 Kg/cubic meter ( 40lb/cft). The compressive strength in no-fine concrete may be 1.5 to 14.5 Kg/ cm square (200-2000lb/square Inch). This strength does no t depend on water-cement ratio. However at the other quantity or cement past becomes to this or so hard that it does not stick to the aggregates. The best suited water-cement ratio generally is 0.38 to 0.52. Such concrete  is used to decrease the weight of a structure generally, steel is too used in this concrete because bond between steel and concrete becomes weak. If at tall bonds are needed then special arrangements are needed.

Heavy Weight Concrete

Such concretes are used for special purposes. The weight of such concrete is 2230 to 5575 Kg/cubic Meter (150 to 300 lb/CFT). In the preparation of this concrete, heavy natural stone from rocks is used as aggregates. These stones include barite, Limonite, Magnetite, etc; these stones are in fact ores of iron and other metals. That is why the weight of this stone is more than ordinary stone. Its specific gravity is 3.6 to 4.7. The aggregate prepared from such stones is strong and heavy. The compressive strength to this concrete is 360 to 435 Kg/ Cm square (5000 to 6000 lb/in square). To make this concrete heavier, more steel shots and punches are added to concrete. These heavy concretes are used in atmospheric search laboratories for the safety of bad effects. Because these concretes contain less voids. In addition to this where more weight is requires as in counter fort the concrete of this type is prepared.
There is not much use of the heavy weight concrete. The cause of this is that it cannot be placed in open space. Because it has less resistance power for abrasion, atmospheric pollution and seasonal changes. If at all its use is needed then it should be covered with some other suitable material.

Nailing Concrete

Such concrete in which nail can e inserted easily and the grip of the nail is here then this called Nailing Concrete. Such concrete is used for preparing floors at some inclined surface wood is used for preparing such concrete. As ingredients of this concrete cement sand a d saw dust are used in equal volumes. The fine sand is used in this concrete. Water is needed in much quantity for the preparation of this concrete. After Preparation. It’s curing needs to be done for the preparation for this concrete. After preparation its curing needs to be done for two days. Then it is kept for one day to make usable. In addition to the saw dust special type of coarse aggregates is required for its preparation. For this purpose, Expanded Slag, Pumice. Prelates and Scoria etc. can be used.

High Strength Concrete

This concrete is also called High Performance Concrete. Its strength is more than that of commons concrete. The compressive strength in this concrete is 870 Kg/sq.cm (12000lb/sq.in). Such a high strength like a common concrete can be had after 28 days and also it can achieve even after three days of the preparation of the concrete. The desired strength can be got by using desired quantity of cement. Better aggregates are used for the preparation of such concrete and the ordinary Portland cement van be used in greater quantities. The quantity of cement can be used 450 to 550 Kg/cubic.M (28 to 34 lb/Cubic.ft). Water is used in less quantity in this concrete. The water cement ratio is kept in this concrete as 0.20 to 0.35. In some cases this ration can be 0.2. This increases the strength of the concrete. Some chemicals are used in the small quantity. This is called super plasticizer its quantity used per cu.m is only 5 to 15 liters. In addition to this silica fume can also be used. This is of extremely fine shape. This makes the concrete strong by entering into the voids of cement and the voids between cement and concrete. In addition to this Fly ash can also be included. Such concrete is very heavy and strong. There are extremely less voids in it. Good quality aggregates are used in this concrete. The maximum size of this is 12 mm (1.5inch). The best grading is kept between the sizes of fine and the coarse aggregates are adopted. This type of concrete is very strong compared to ordinary concrete. It is also durable. This concrete can be used at all those places where ordinary concrete can be used but it is most beneficial for pre-stressed concrete, structures of large spans and high-rise buildings.

Mass Concrete

On the hardening of concrete temperature increases during hydration action of concrete. There appear cracks in the concrete if the temperature inside and outside the concrete is not the same. The danger is expected in large size section. Such concrete in which special arrangements will be needed in respect of cracks is called Mass Concrete. This danger is much in the big constructional works like the construction of R.C.C Dams, construction of a port and the foundations of big buildings. This is because there is much temperature difference in the internal and the externals temperature of large sections. In such cases the surface becomes hot an cold by this temperature difference. Whereas this change is less at the internal surface of the concrete. In this way due to the difference of temperature, the rate of expansion and contraction is different. As a result stresses are created in the concrete. If this stress is greater than the withstanding strength of the concrete then cracks will appear. During the hardening of the concrete, maximum increase in the temperature arises due to hydration action. This happens after 36 hour of mixing the concrete. By using the slow setting cement can be helpful in saving the concrete from cracks in the preparation of Mass of Concrete. Low Heat cement can be used for this purpose. In addition to this the use of pazzolana cement will avoid the development of cracks in the concrete. The less the quantity of cement used the less will be danger of cracks. The use of big size of coarse aggregates in the preparation of Mass Concrete can also reduce the danger of cracks.
The danger of cracks development can also be avoided by decreasing the temperature of external internal surfaces of concrete. For this purpose the surface of the concrete can be painted or the surface be covered with plastic or some other suitable material. In this way the temperature of internal and the upper surface can be painted or the surface be covered with plastic or some other suitable material. In this way the temperature of internal and the upper surface can be made uniform. The danger of cracks arises when the difference of temperatures between two places is more that 10 degree centigrade. Incase this difference is present in the fresh concrete then the danger increase. This is because the strength o concrete is extremely less at this time. Suitable arrangement is needed in this case.

Ready Mix Concrete

Sometime it is difficult to prepare concrete at the site. So the ingredients of the concrete are mixed dry at some other places water is also added in small quantity at this stage. Such a concrete is called Ready mixed concrete. The remaining work for the mixing of the concrete is done at the site. Such circumstances can occur in congested areas. Because material cannot be stored at such places. In  addition to this such situation can occur during the construction of a road. Because in this case it is difficult to move the raw material along the road. Therefore it is considered better to place the material and machinery for concrete at one suitable place to prepare ready mixed concrete . after the placing of the concrete it curing and compaction is completed.
There are two methods of preparing ready mixed concrete. In the first method, concrete is prepared completely by the central batching plant then transferred to the site concerned with the help of the transit mixer. Such special trucks are used so that the concrete my not get hard on reaching the site. In the second method concrete is mixed in the truck Mixer. Here the dry elements of the concrete are mixed in the desired proportion in the truck mixer an then the mixer mixes the concrete while moving along. And complete the mixing action by using required amount of water at the required site. There comes across many problems pertaining to ready-mixed concrete. The greatest problem is that of the work-ability of the concrete at the site. In additions this there is the danger of segregation of coarse aggregates. To overcome this danger an excess amount of cement up to 5 to 20% is added additionally in this concrete.

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26 Jun 2017



Every curve with gradually changing radius will be the transiting curve. Its generally used types are the following:
  1.  Cubic Parabola
  2.  Spiral
  3.  Lemniscates

A = Cubic parabola
B = Spiral curve
C = Lemniscates curve
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